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History of Computer Networks (ARPANET)

History of Computer Networks (ARPANET) Earlier, computers were only used as stand-alone machines. Computer networks were created to establish a communication link between different users within an organization. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) designed Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) for United States Department of Defense. It was the foremost computer network in the Universe.

History of Computer Networks (ARPANET)

Earlier, computers were only used as stand-alone machines. Computer networks were created to establish a communication link between different users within an organization. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) designed Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) for United States Department of Defense. It was the foremost computer network in the Universe.

Small computers were used to manage communication links. These small computers were connected to large mainframe computers. These large computers were connected to the ARPANET. The purpose of ARPANET was that each computer would be connected to a specialized computer, called as Interface Message Processes (IMP). The IMPs perform the store and forward of data and were connected to each other using modems.

In 1969, the first ARPANET link was established between the IMP nodes at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). Then Douglas Engelbart's hypertext-project computer at Stanford Research Institute (SPi was connected to IMP node. By the end of the year, the computers at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the University of Utah were connected to the network. All the computers in the network were using different operating systems and were able communicate with each other across the network.

ARPANET was originally developed for providing long-distance (remote) computing. Remote computing was done by a utility program known as Telnet which allows the user on one computer to connect to another computer on a network. Telnet service can be used for debate, discussion and news sharing by the news y discussion groups. Still the remote computing is considered as an effective and useful service of the APRANET.

File transfer is another service provided by APRANET. It allows the users to access remote computer and retrieve programs or data. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is utility software which is used for uploading and downloading files. Using FTP, the directories or folders on remote computers can be easily accessed and ties can be transferred between computers.

In 1970s, the research institutes and laboratories supported by the Department of Defense were also included in ARPANET, in various parts of USA.

Types of Computer Networks

Computer network can be wired or wireless. Networks can be categorized as per the geographical area to be covered by the network. Computer network includes Local Area Network (LAN), Campus Area Network (CAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN).

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Comments (1)

Quite informative friend.

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